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Health which is paramount to wealth is what should always be in check all the time. Cancer as being that deadly diseases that is affecting both the young and old in the society this days, that is why will we be taking into consideration breast cancer, the meaning, causes, symptoms, cure and some ways that can be used to prevent cancer.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. A cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. Breast cancer can occur in women and rarely in men.
The following are the symptoms of breast cancer and which should be taking note of in case its happening to you.
▪ lumps in the breast.
▪ Bloody discharge from the nipple.
▪ Changes in the shape or texture of the nipple or breast.
▪ Dimpling of the skin.
▪ Fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin.
▪ Shortness of breath or yellow skin
▪ lastly when the disease is well spread over its gives a pain in the bone.
The following are the types of breast cancer according to research by medicinenet.com on breast cancer,
Ductal carcinoma in situ: is a type of noninvasive breast cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This type of cancer has not spread and therefore usually has a very high cure rate.
Invasive lobular carcinoma: This breast cancer starts in the glands of the breast that produce milk. Approximately 10% of invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinoma.
Invasive ductal carcinoma: This cancer starts in a duct of the breast and grows into the surrounding tissue. It is the most common form of breast cancer. About 80% of invasive breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinoma.
Medullary carcinoma is an infiltrating breast cancer that presents with well-defined boundaries between the cancerous and noncancerous tissue.
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Inflammatory breast cancer: This cancer makes the skin of the breast appear red and feel warm (giving it the appearance of an infection). These changes are due to the blockage of lymph vessels by cancer cells.
Triple-negative breast cancers: This is a subtype of invasive cancer with cells that lack estrogen and progesterone receptors and have no excess of a specific protein (HER2) on their surface. It tends to appear more often in younger women and African-American women.
Paget’s disease of the nipple: This cancer starts in the ducts of the breast and spreads to the nipple and the area surrounding the nipple. It usually presents with crusting and redness around the nipple.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma: These cancers have both glandular and cystic features. They tend not to spread aggressively and have a good prognosis.
Lobular carcinoma in situ: This is not a cancer but an area of abnormal cell growth that can lead to invasive breast cancer later in life.
Mucinous carcinoma are formed from mucus-producing cancer cells. Mixed tumors contain a variety of cell types.
There is no particular causes of breast cancer but the causes may be attach to the risk factor of cancer. The following below are the risk factor of breast cancer.
Hereditary: normal breast cells become cancerous because of mutations in the DNA, and although some of these are inherited. It can be transferred from the parent to the children.
AGE: the risk of getting a breast cancer grows as the age increases.
Personal factor: starting of period at the early stage before 12 years or getting the age of menopause after the age of 55.
Race: White women have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, but African-American women tend to have more aggressive tumors when they do develop breast cancer.
Still birth, late first son and using birth control pills may also increase the rate of breast cancer in women.
Exposure to previous chest radiation or use of diethylstilbestrol increases the risk of breast cancer.
Smoking and alcoholic can also increase the chances of having a breast cancer.
Being overweight or obese increases the risk of breast cancer both in pre- and postmenopausal women but at different rates.
Use of oral contraceptive in the last 10 years increases the risk of breast cancer slightly.
The treatment of breast cancer depends on the stages and the age of the patient. Increasingly aggressive treatments are employed in accordance with the poorer the patient’s prognosis and the higher the risk of recurrence of the cancer following treatment.
Breast cancer is usually treated with surgery, which may be followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both. A multidisciplinary approach is preferable. Hormone receptor-positive cancers are often treated with hormone-blocking therapy over courses of several years. Monoclonal antibodies, or other immune-modulating treatments, may be administered in certain cases of metastatic and other advanced stages of breast cancer.
The use of screening mammography has made it possible to detect many of the cancers early before they cause any symptoms. The American Cancer Society (ACS) has the following recommendations for breast cancer screenings:
Women should have the opportunity to begin annual screening between 40-44 years of age. Women age 45 and older should have a screening mammogram every year until age 54. Women 55 years of age and older should have biennial screening or have the opportunity to continue screening annually. Women should continue screening mammography as long as their overall health is good and they have a life expectancy of 10 years or longer.
Mammograms are a very good screening tool for breast cancer. As in any test, mammograms have limitations and will miss some cancers. An individual’s family history and mammogram and breast exam results should be discussed with a health-care provider.
The two most commonly used screening methods, physical examination of the breasts by a healthcare provider and mammography, can offer an approximate likelihood that a lump is cancer, and may also detect some other lesions, such as a simple cyst.
Other options for biopsy include a core biopsy or vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, which are procedures in which a section of the breast lump is removed; or an excisional biopsy, in which the entire lump is removed.
Life Style: Women may reduce their risk of breast cancer by maintaining a healthy weight, drinking less alcohol, being physically active and breastfeeding their children. These modifications might prevent 38% of breast cancers in the US, 42% in the UK, 28% in Brazil and 20% in China. The benefits with moderate exercise such as brisk walking are seen at all age groups including postmenopausal women. High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer by about 14%. Strategies that encourage regular physical activity and reduce obesity could also have other benefits, such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Removal of both breasts before any cancer has been diagnosed or any suspicious lump or other lesion has appeared (a procedure known as prophylactic bilateral mastectomy) may be considered in people with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, which are associated with a substantially heightened risk for an eventual diagnosis of breast cancer. Evidence is not strong enough to support this procedure in anyone but those at the highest risk. BRCA testing is recommended in those with a high family risk after genetic counseling. It is not recommended routinely. This is because there are many forms of changes in BRCA genes, ranging from harmless polymophism to obviously dangerous frame shift mutation. The effect of most of the identifiable changes in the genes is uncertain. Testing in an average-risk person is particularly likely to return one of these indeterminate, useless results. It is unclear if removing the second breast in those who have breast cancer in one is beneficial.
The selective estrogen receptor modulator (such as tamoxifen) reduce the risk of breast cancer but increase the risk of throboembolism and endomentrial cancer. There is no overall change in the risk of death. They are thus not recommended for the prevention of breast cancer in women at average risk but may be offered for those at high risk. The benefit of breast cancer reduction continues for at least five years after stopping a course of treatment with these medications.